Fusarium graminearum poses a significant challenge to the production of staple cereal crops around the world and causes animal and human health risks by contaminating grain with toxin. Head blight or scab caused by Fusarium graminearum (FG), once ranked as a minor disease in wheat, is now emerging as one of the economically important diseases in India. The present study represents the first in-depth population genetic analysis of the FG from the northern wheat belt of India. In this study, multiple conserved gene sequences comprised of β-tubulin (TUB), translation elongation factor 1-α (TEF), and histone-3 (HIS) regions were used for multi-locus phylogenetic analysis of 123 geographically distinct F. graminearum isolates collected from four different states (Haryana (HR), Punjab (PB), Rajasthan (RJ) and West Bengal (WB)) of India. The phylogenetic and haplotype analysis showed the presence of thirty haplotypes in all the analyzed populations. The haplotypic diversity in the RJ population (Hd = 0.981) was higher than in the HR (Hd = 0.972), PB (Hd = 0.965) and WB population (Hd = 0.962). Recombination events (Rm = 12) and mutation events (485) were also detected. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) indicated that genetic diversity was exclusively due to the differences within populations. The haplotype network was widely dispersed and not associated with specific populations, as a single common haplotype was not detected. The PB population contained both unique (H9, H10 and H11) and shared haplotypes (27 haplotypes) in a higher number in comparison to other geographical locations. Except for haplotype H22 (contains highly aggressive isolates), there was no specific linkage noticed between the isolate aggressiveness and haplotype. The concatenated sequences of all the three genes demonstrated a low level of genetic differentiation (Fst = −0.014 to 0.02) in the analyzed population. Positive values for the neutrality tests in PB, HR and RJ reveal a balancing selection mechanism behind the FG population structure. The WB population showed both positive and negative values of neutrality indices, indicating the role of both population expansion as well as balancing selection in structuring the FG population.