Puccina striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), and Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici (Pgt) are important fungal pathogens that cause destructive wheat lost world wild. Wheat landraces are valuable sources of resistance those developed over long periods and have complex resistance in their geographical regions. Northwestern Iran is located in the Fertile Crescent, presents an important wheat and pathogens co-epicenter. Reactions of one hundred-six Iranian wheat landraces were evaluated against both wheat yellow and stem rusts. In this study new sources of seedling resistance were identified using ten different Pst races including; Psts10, PstS7, PstS2+V27, PstS11, PstS8, PstS3, PstS13, PstS6, PstS0 and a new race not assign a name yet and six different Pgt prevalent races, TTKTT, TTRTF, TTKSK, TKTTF, TKKTF and TTTTF. In total, 43.4% (46), 40.6% (43), 34.9% (37), 40.6% (43), 47.2% (50), 45.3% (48), 38.7% (41), 38.7% (41), 57.5% (61) and 22.6% (24) of the genotypes showed different levels of resistance (infection type) to the former Pst races, respectively. Sixteen genotypes (15%) showed resistance to all studied Pst isolates, mostly originated from Northwest of Iran. Moreover, 37.74% (40), 20.75% (22), 33.96% (36), 2.83% (3), 1.89% (2) and 4.72% (5) of the genotypes showed different levels of resistance against the former Pgt races, respectively. Two genotypes (1.8%) originated from Hamedan and Lorestan provinces showed resistance to all Pgt races. Further breeding and molecular studies have to be perform to investigate harboring wheat rust resistance genes in these resistant genotypes. Identification of novel sources of resistance against wheat rusts and employing valuable native wheat landraces genetic backgrounds, local and international wheat-breeding programs would be further facilitated.